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发表于 2014-4-29 20:42:13 | 查看: 866| 回复: 3
本帖最后由 d11yushi 于 2014-5-19 10:31 编辑

Principles of Economics by Alfred Marshall 马歇尔的经济学原理(英文版) txt+doc+PDF+MP3
解压密码和word文档的打开密码为:alfredmarshall 搜狗截图20140429204555.png 搜狗截图20140429204655.png 01.png
Principles of Economics
Alfred Marshall
Principles of Economics
An Introductory Volume  
Natura non facit saltum
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.  


Economic conditions are constantly changing, and each generation  looks at  its
own problems  in  its own way.  In England, as well as on  the Continent and  in
America, Economic  studies are being more vigorously pursued now  than ever
before;  but  all  this  activity  has  only  shown  the  more  clearly  that  Economic
science  is, and must be, one of slow and continuous growth. Some of  the best
work  of  the  present  generation  has  indeed  appeared  at  first  sight  to  be
antagonistic  to  that of earlier writers; but when  it has had  time  to  settle down
into  its  proper  place,  and  its  rough  edges  have  been worn  away,  it  has  been
found to involve no real breach of continuity in the development of the science.
The new doctrines have supplemented the older, have extended, developed, and
sometimes corrected them, and often have given them a different tone by a new
distribution of emphasis; but very seldom have subverted them.  

P.1
The present  treatise  is an attempt  to present a modern version of old doctrines
with  the aid of  the new work, and with  reference  to  the new problems, of our
own age.  Its general scope and purpose are  indicated  in Book  I.; at  the end of
which  a  short  account  is  given  of what  are  taken  to  be  the  chief  subjects  of
economic  inquiry,  and  the  chief  practical  issues  on which  that  inquiry  has  a
bearing. In accordance with English traditions, it is held that the function of the
science  is  to  collect,  arrange  and  analyse  economic  facts,  and  to  apply  the
knowledge,  gained  by  observation  and  experience,  in  determining  what  are
likely to be the immediate and ultimate effects of various groups of causes; and
it is held that the Laws of Economics are statements of tendencies expressed in
the indicative mood, and not ethical precepts in the imperative. Economic laws
and  reasonings  in  fact are merely a part of  the material which Conscience and
Common-sense  have  to  turn  to  account  in  solving  practical  problems,  and  in
laying down rules which may be a guide in life.  

P.2
But ethical forces are among those of which the economist has to take account.
Attempts have indeed been made to construct an abstract science with regard to
the actions of an "economic man," who is under no ethical influences and who
pursues pecuniary gain warily and energetically, but mechanically and selfishly.
But  they  have  not  been  successful,  nor  even  thoroughly  carried  out. For  they
have never really treated the economic man as perfectly selfish: no one could be
relied  on  better  to  endure  toil  and  sacrifice with  the  unselfish  desire  to make
provision  for  his  family;  and  his  normal  motives  have  always  been  tacitly
P.3 assumed to include the family affections. But if they include these, why should
they not include all other altruistic motives the action of which is so far uniform
in any class at any time and place, that it can be reduced to general rule? There
seems to be no reason; and in the present book normal action is taken to be that
which  may  be  expected,  under  certain  conditions,  from  the  members  of  an
industrial  group;  and  no  attempt  is  made  to  exclude  the  influence  of  any
motives, the action of which is regular, merely because they are altruistic. If the
book has any special character of its own, that may perhaps be said to lie in the
prominence  which  it  gives  to  this  and  other  applications  of  the  Principle  of
Continuity.  

This principle is applied not only to the ethical quality of the motives by which
a man may  be  influenced  in  choosing  his  ends,  but  also  to  the  sagacity,  the
energy and the enterprise with which he pursues those ends. Thus stress is laid
on  the  fact  that  there  is a continuous gradation  from  the actions of "city men,"
which  are  based  on  deliberate  and  far-reaching  calculations,  and  are  executed
with vigour and ability, to those of ordinary people who have neither the power
nor  the  will  to  conduct  their  affairs  in  a  business-like  way.  The  normal
willingness  to save,  the normal willingness  to undergo a certain exertion  for a
certain  pecuniary  reward,  or  the  normal  alertness  to  seek  the  best markets  in
which  to buy  and  sell, or  to  search out  the most advantageous occupation  for
oneself or  for one's children—all  these and similar phrases must be  relative  to
the members of  a particular  class  at a given place and  time: but, when  that  is
once understood,  the  theory of normal value  is applicable  to  the actions of  the
unbusiness-like classes in the same way, though not with the same precision of
detail, as to those of the merchant or banker.  

P.4
And as there is no sharp line of division between conduct which is normal, and
that  which  has  to  be  provisionally  neglected  as  abnormal,  so  there  is  none
between  normal  values  and  "current"  or  "market" or  "occasional"  values. The
latter  are  those  values  in  which  the  accidents  of  the  moment  exert  a
preponderating  influence;  while  normal  values  are  those  which  would  be
ultimately attained, if the economic conditions under view had time to work out
undisturbed their full effect. But there is no impassable gulf between these two;
they  shade  into  one  another  by  continuous  gradations.  The  values which we
may regard as normal if we are thinking of the changes from hour to hour on a
Produce Exchange, do but  indicate current variations with  regard  to  the year's
history:  and  the  normal  values  with  reference  to  the  year's  history  are  but
current values with  reference  to  the history of  the century. For  the element of
Time,  which  is  the  centre  of  the  chief  difficulty  of  almost  every  economic
problem,  is  itself absolutely continuous: Nature knows no absolute partition of
time  into  long  periods  and  short;  but  the  two  shade  into  one  another  by
imperceptible gradations, and what  is a short period for one problem,  is a  long
period for another.
Thus  for  instance  the  greater  part,  though  not  the  whole,  of  the  distinction
between Rent and Interest on capital turns on the length of the period which we
have  in view. That which  is  rightly  regarded as  interest on "free" or "floating"
capital, or on new  investments of capital,  is more properly  treated as a sort of
P.6 rent—a Quasi-rent it is called below—on old investments of capital. And there
is  no  sharp  line  of  division  between  floating  capital  and  that which  has  been
"sunk" for a special branch of production, nor between new and old investments
of capital; each group shades into the other gradually. And thus even the rent of
land is seen, not as a thing by itself, but as the leading species of a large genus;
though indeed it has peculiarities of its own which are of vital importance from
the point of view of theory as well as of practice.  

Again,  though  there  is  a  sharp  line  of  division  between man  himself  and  the
appliances which he uses; and though the supply of, and the demand for, human
efforts and sacrifices have peculiarities of their own, which do not attach to the
supply  of,  and  the  demand  for,  material  goods;  yet,  after  all,  these material
goods are  themselves generally  the  result of human efforts and sacrifices. The
theories  of  the  values  of  labour,  and  of  the  things  made  by  it,  cannot  be
separated:  they  are  parts  of  one  great  whole;  and  what  differences  there  are
between  them even  in matters of detail,  turn out on  inquiry  to be,  for  the most
part,  differences  of  degree  rather  than  of  kind.  As,  in  spite  of  the  great
differences  in  form  between  birds  and  quadrupeds,  there  is  one  Fundamental
Idea running through all their frames, so the general theory of the equilibrium of
demand and supply is a Fundamental Idea running through the frames of all the
various parts of the central problem of Distribution and Exchange*1
.  

P.7
Another application of the Principle of Continuity  is to the use of terms. There
has  always  been  a  temptation  to  classify  economic  goods  in  clearly  defined
groups, about which a number of short and sharp propositions could be made, to
gratify at once  the student's desire  for  logical precision, and  the popular  liking
for dogmas  that have  the air of being profound and are yet easily handled. But
great  mischief  seems  to  have  been  done  by  yielding  to  this  temptation,  and
drawing  broad  artificial  lines  of  division  where  Nature  has  made  none.  The
more  simple  and  absolute  an  economic  doctrine  is,  the  greater  will  be  the
confusion which it brings into attempts to apply economic doctrines to practice,
if the dividing lines to which it refers cannot be found in real life. There is not in
real  life a clear  line of division between  things  that are and are not Capital, or
that  are  and  are  not  Necessaries,  or  again  between  labour  that  is  and  is  not
Productive.  

P.8 The notion of continuity with  regard  to development  is common  to all modern
schools of  economic  thought, whether  the  chief  influences  acting on  them are
those  of  biology,  as  represented  by  the  writings  of  Herbert  Spencer;  or  of
history and philosophy, as represented by Hegel's Philosophy of History, and by
more recent ethico-historical studies on the Continent and elsewhere. These two
kinds  of  influences  have  affected, more  than  any  other,  the  substance  of  the
views expressed  in  the present book; but  their  form has been most affected by
mathematical  conceptions  of  continuity,  as  represented  in Cournot's Principes
Mathématiques  de  la  Théorie  des Richesses. He  taught  that  it  is  necessary  to
face the difficulty of regarding the various elements of an economic problem,—
not  as  determining  one  another  in  a  chain  of  causation,  A  determining  B,  B
determining  C,  and  so  on—but  as  all  mutually  determining  one  another.
Nature's action is complex: and nothing is gained in the long run by pretending
that it is simple, and trying to describe it in a series of elementary propositions.  

P.9
Under the guidance of Cournot, and in a less degree of von Thünen, I was led to
attach great importance to the fact that our observations of nature, in the moral
as  in  the  physical  world,  relate  not  so  much  to  aggregate  quantities,  as  to
increments  of  quantities,  and  that  in  particular  the  demand  for  a  thing  is  a
continuous  function,  of  which  the  "marginal
*2
"  increment  is,  in  stable
equilibrium,  balanced  against  the  corresponding  increment  of  its  cost  of
production.  It  is  not  easy  to  get  a  clear  full  view  of  continuity  in  this  aspect
without  the aid either of mathematical symbols or of diagrams. The use of  the
latter  requires  no  special knowledge,  and  they  often  express  the  conditions of
economic  life more  accurately,  as well  as more  easily,  than  do mathematical
symbols; and therefore they have been applied as supplementary illustrations in
the footnotes of the present volume. The argument in the text is never dependent
on them; and they may be omitted; but experience seems to show that they give
a  firmer grasp of many  important principles  than can be got without  their aid;
and  that  there are many problems of pure  theory, which no one who has once
learnt to use diagrams will willingly handle in any other way.  

P.10
The chief use of pure mathematics in economic questions seems to be in helping
a person to write down quickly, shortly and exactly, some of his thoughts for his
own use: and to make sure that he has enough, and only enough, premisses for
his conclusions (i.e. that his equations are neither more nor less in number than
his unknowns). But when a great many symbols have  to be used,  they become
very  laborious  to any one but  the writer himself. And  though Cournot's genius
must give a new mental activity to everyone who passes through his hands, and
mathematicians  of  calibre  similar  to  his may  use  their  favourite  weapons  in
clearing a way for themselves to the centre of some of those difficult problems
of economic theory, of which only the outer fringe has yet been touched; yet it
seems  doubtful  whether  any  one  spends  his  time  well  in  reading  lengthy
translations of  economic doctrines  into mathematics,  that have not been made
by  himself. A  few  specimens  of  those  applications  of mathematical  language
which  have  proved  most  useful  for  my  own  purposes  have,  however,  been
added in an Appendix.  
September, 1890.


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英文原版书(免论坛币)

发表于 2015-7-14 08:04:30
感谢楼主,是一个女声在朗读,比较清晰好听!我要全部下了,谢谢!
发表于 2019-3-28 16:46:25
THX~~~~~~~~~~~
发表于 2019-7-20 00:09:41 来自手机
thx,学习了
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